Fevipiprant - new oral med for allergic asthm 08-Aug-2016
Recent article from Lancet showed Fevipiprant - works well for allergic asthma. It is a prostaglandin D2 receptor 2 antagonist. Novel mode of action
Volixibat - for NASH ? It is on FDA fast tract 08-Aug-2016
Volixibat is a novel drug possibly for NASH. It is once-daily, orally-administered inhibitor of the apical sodium dependent bile acid transporter, a protein primarily responsible for recycling bile acids from the intestine to the liver.
Two types of LVEF ? 08-Jul-2016
New study suggests two types of LVEF. LVrecEF Where the LV recovers to more than 40% over time versus LVrEF which is LV reduced EF PERMANENT.
Mortality benefit reduction of LVrecEF is 16 % in favor versus 4% in LVrEF
NGAL elevation correlates with ACLF 07-Jul-2016
NGAL has been used by nephrologists for differentiating new onset RF versus chronic. It can also help identify acute on chronic liver failure - an elevated level correlates with ACLF
Rikkunshito for resistant GERD ? 04-Jul-2016
Rikkunshito a Japanese herb for resistant GERD is part of the guidelines in Rx in Japan
It works for anorexia also. It increases gherlin and improves sensitivity to ghrelin
Digoxin in AF associated with higher mortality 19-Jun-2016
AF is associated with a higher mortality - both sudden cardiac death and non sudden cardiac death. Contributing factors include
1. Digoxin increases mortality with or without CHF. Perhaps there is a selection bias since these patients are difficult to treat
2. Sustained AF is associated with a higher mortality
3. CHF is a RF for AF for a higher mortality.
New Diabetes Rx - endoscopic laser 17-Jun-2016
DMR- duodenal mucosal resurfacing changes insulin resistance and improves weight, blood sugar, Hb A1 c and liver panel. This is a study from Fractal. 2014 there were studies from Europe also
CHF : vent. Asst. Devices : impella & tandem 13-Jun-2016
A few months ago 2 new VAD were approved They are portable
*Impella* was approved for *pVAD Tandem* is another one. Both are used for CHF
H pylori 2016 Rx update 13-Jun-2016
Needs 14 day treatment regimen.10 days had a high failure rate
Quadruple treatment is first line.
PPI + Amoxicillin + Metronidazole + clarithromycin (PAMC)
PPI + Bismuth + Metrnoidazole + Tetracycline (PBMT)
PPI + clarithromycin + amoxicillin / flagyl) is restricted to places with knownlow resistance to clarithromycin less than 15%
Rescue therapies include PBMT and levofloxacin containing regimen ( PPI + amoxicillin + levofloxacin)USE ONLY IF they have FAILED 3 prior options as above
If previous regimen with levofloxacin or clarithromycin has failed, do not use them again
Recommend use of probiotics to reduce adverse reactions and increase eradication rate.
Zinplava from Merck - one infusion Rx for C diff 10-Jun-2016
A single, one-time infusion of the antitoxin bezlotoxumab given with standard of care C. difficile antibiotic treatment significantly reduced the recurrence of C. difficile infection compared to standard of care alone, and demonstrated this benefit over a 12-week period,” said Dr. Mark Wilcox, Leeds Teaching Hospitals and University of Leeds, U.K., and a lead investigator for the studies. “These results were also demonstrated in patient subgroups known to be at high risk for C. difficile recurrence.”
Contrast enhanced US for liver lesion and Crohns 09-Jun-2016
Lumason was approved for CEUS to enhance diagnosis of liver lesions without exposing patients to radiation. Contrast enhanced US can be used for crohns also.
Statins beneficial in Hep B - Taiwan data 09-Jun-2016
“This large population-based study in a hepatitis B virus endemic country suggested that statins independently protect [chronic hepatitis B] patients from the development of cirrhosis, its complications and its decompensation according to a dose–response relationship,” Yi-Wen Huang, MD, PhD, of the Liver Center, Cathay General Hospital Medical Center, Taiwan, and colleagues wrote.
IV Tigecycline for C diff Rx - 76% effective. 08-Jun-2016
C diff Rx Tigecycline effected a 76% clinical cure rate, compared with 53% for the combination regimen of intravenous metronidazole and oral vancomycin. This trial is from Europe
Immodium causes torsades 07-Jun-2016
Immodium has been associated with torsades. Max dose recommended is 8 mg/day
More likely to happen if zantac / rantidine is used.
Highly sensitive troponin I 04-Jun-2016
The second study released alongside in JAMA Cardiology affirmed that serial use of the high-sensitivity test at presentation and at 1 hour was "comparable" in performance to a 3-hour protocol, as had been initially reported at the European Society of Cardiology meeting.
"With application of a low troponin I cutoff value of 6 ng/L, the rule-out algorithm showed a high negative predictive value of 99.8% (95% CI, 98.6%-100.0%) after 1 hour for non-ST-segment elevation MI type 1," Dirk Westermann, MD, PhD, of the University Heart Center Hamburg, Germany, and colleagues reported. "Similarly, a rule-in algorithm based on troponin I levels provided a high positive predictive value with 82.8% (95% CI 73.2%-90.0%)."
Again, a lower cutoff appeared better, the researchers wrote, as "application of the cutoff of 6 ng/L resulted in lower follow-up mortality (1.0%) compared with the routinely used 99th percentile (3.7%) for this assay."
Their prospective Biomarkers in Acute Cardiac Care (BACC) study included 1,040 patients presenting to the emergency department with acute chest pain from July 19, 2013, to Dec. 31, 2014, along with two independent cohorts totalling 4,009 patients.
High-sensitivity troponin tests are used routinely in many regions of the world but haven't yet become available in the U.S., David A. Morrow, MD, MPH, of Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston, noted in an accompanying editorial.
FMT in IBD 30-May-2016
A total of 27% of patients given the active treatment met the study's primary outcome of clinical remission plus endoscopic response or remission after 8 weeks compared with 8% of those who received placebo (<=0.02), reported Sudarshan Paramsothy, MD, of the University of New South Wales in Australia.
In addition, at week 8, steroid-free clinical remission and clinical response rates compared with placebo were 44% versus 20% (P=0.02) and 54% versus 23% (P<<0.01), he said at the annual Digestive Disease Week.
"In recent years, researchers have gained a better understanding of the gut microbiota and the critical role it plays in health and disease, including conditions like ulcerative colitis," Paramsothy said during a press briefing. The estimated prevalence of ulcerative colitis is 200/100,000 adults, according to the CDC.
"The FDA has approved FMT for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection, but questions remain as to whether FMTs could be useful for other types of digestive disorders," said Beth McCormick, PhD, of the University of Massachusetts Center for Microbiome Research in Worcester, who was not involved in the study. "This randomized, placebo-controlled trial demonstrated promising results for ulcerative colitis, a treatment that hasn't received FDA approval specifically for this indication, but there's potential for future progress here," she said in a press briefing.
"FMT has a lot of promise in ulcerative colitis," Paramsothy told MedPage Today.
And while the gut microbiota is the antigenic driver in ulcerative colitis, the efficacy of microbial manipulation has not been established, although preliminary low-dose studies suggested potential benefit.
To test FMT in a population of treatment-resistant patients, the authors enrolled 81 patients with active disease, in that Mayo scores were 4 to 10. They were given FMT via a colonoscopic infusion on day 1 and then self-administered FMT enemas 5 days per week for 8 weeks.
"This population is accustomed to using enemas as part of their treatment, so our approach would not be unusual to them," he said.
The enemas consisted of stool from at least three different donors, to avoid potential "donor effect," in which the microbial characteristics of a single patients could be unduly influential. Donors are screened to ensure safety of the stool.
Patients were allowed to continue taking immunomodulators such as 5-aminosalicylate and and steroids in doses no higher than 20 mg/day, but had to have stopped previous biologics at least 12 weeks earlier. They also had to stop using any other enema treatments.
The primary endpoint required a Mayo score of 2 or less with subscores of 1 or less for rectal bleeding, stool frequency, and endoscopic appearance, as well as a 1-point or more reduction from baseline on the endoscopy subscore. Clinical remission required a combined total score of 1 or less for the rectal bleeding and stool frequency subscores.
Steroid-free endoscopic remission scores for the FMT and placebo groups were 17% versus 8% at week 8 (P=0.19), while endoscopic response rates were 37% versus 10% (P<0.01).
After the initial 8-week phase, 37 of 40 patients who had been randomized to placebo and went on to receive the active FMT for an additional 8 weeks. Of these, 27% met the primary endpoint, 46% were in clinical remission, and 24% had endoscopic remission.
There were three serious adverse events of worsening of colitis. Two of these were in the active treatment group, with one requiring colectomy, and one in the placebo group.
"We were able to show definitively that fecal microbiota transplantation is an effective treatment for ulcerative colitis. This is important because there are millions of people worldwide seeking alternative treatments for this condition," Paramsothy said.
The long-term effects of the treatment have yet to be established, he cautioned.
Vitamin E warning and Efficacy of Selenium? 12-Oct-2011
A new study that came out in JAMA suggested that patients taking high dose Vitamin E had a higher chance of developing prosate cancer. We still await more studies for the same. The study did not show any benefit with using Selenium.
New warnings! 05-Oct-2011
New FDA warnings were issued today about TNF antagonists (Remicaide, Cimzia and Humira) Fatal infections have occured with Legionella and Listeria. This is especially true with patients on TNF plus another immunusuppresant. Simvastatin has drug warnings with interactions with amidarone, diltiazem, verapamil, antifungals including diflucan and other drugs. Dose reduction or NOT using them at the same time is strongly recommended. Also dose of 80 mg is associated with a higher drug toxicity. Talk with your cardiologist or primary care for the same.
Sniff it out 28-Apr-2011
Dogs have been known to sniff humans and indicate the person has colon or rectal cancer. However, they get olfactory fatigue (tired of smelling). In an article published in Gut and Irish Medical times, they have made a device which can "smell" and detect colorectal cancer.